Georgofili World

Newsletter of the Georgofili Academy

New editions related to olive oil and table olives

The bibliography for the biological activity of some minor compounds of olive and olive oil becomes more extensive every day, and a vast amount of published material has been accumulated. Two new books by researchers of the world's most prestigious universities explore the recent knowledge development on olive oil and table olives bioactive constituents and properties of olive oil as a specialty oil and its use in food. The common ground between them, the presence of Prof. Dimitrios Boskou as Editor and author.
Dimitrios Boskou received his diploma and doctor’s degree in chemistry from the School of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Hellas; his Food Science from the University of London; and a Doctor of Science degree from the School of Chemistry, Aristotle University. He served as an assistant lecturer, assistant professor, associate professor, professor, and head of the Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, School of Chemistry, Aristotle University (1970–2006). In the period from 1986 to 1998 he was a member of the IUPAC Oils, Fats, and Derivatives Commission. He served as a member of the Supreme Chemical Council, Athens (1995–2005), and a member of the Scientific Committee for Food of the European Commission and an expert of the Food Additives Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (1995–2012).
Dr. Boskou has published over 90 papers and reviews. He is the editor of 7 books and the author of 20 chapters in books related to the major and minor constituents of fats, natural antioxidants, olive oil, and heated fats, published in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, India, and Croatia. He is also a contributor to international scientific encyclopedias and the Lexicon of Lipid Nutrition, a joint IUPAC/IUNS work.
Maria Lisa Clodoveo, corresponding Member of Academy of Georgofili, has co-authored two chapters.

Olive and Olive Oil Bioactive Constituents
Edited by Dimitrios Boskou
May 2015. Hardback. TBD pages. ISBN 978-1-630670-41-2. Product code 277 


CHAPTER 7 Research and Innovative Approaches to Obtain Virgin Olive Oils with a Higher Level of Bioactive Constituents, authored by Maria Lisa Clodoveo, Salvatore Camposeo, Riccardo Amirante, Giacomo Dugo, Nicola Cicero, and Dimitrios Boskou 

Chapter 7 analyzes virgin olive oil production steps in relation to minor bioactive constituents. A deeper knowledge of the working parameters (raw material, crushing and process duration, temperature, atmosphere in contact with the olive paste, addition of water) is necessary to diversify the oil quality. Therefore, a lot of information is provided for (i) the preprocessing of olives, (ii) the relationship between crushing systems, particle size and the concentration of bioactive substances, (iii) malaxation systems and adjustable parameters such us time, temperature and control of oxygen, (iv) enzyme activities, (v) separation of phases, filtration, and storage of virgin olive oil. Theoretical considerations are included for the dissolution phenomena of phenols in virgin olive oil during crushing and malaxation, and for the coalescence of oily drops. Employment of ultrasounds and microwaves and proposed strategies to develop continuous plants suitable for process improvement and optimization are described. Finally, innovations developed in the sector of pomace olive oil, aiming at obtaining a final product richer in functional minor components are presented.
Chapter 8 Table Olives as Sources of Bioactive Compounds 
authored by Dimitrios Boskou, Salvatore Camposeo and Maria Lisa Clodoveo.

Table olives are a food with a high nutritional value, a balanced content of fats made up mainly of monounsaturated oleic acid and rich in bioactive constituents. Eating olives also provides energy, fiber, vitamins, and minerals and contributes to the daily intake of nutritional antioxidants. Table olives have more or less the same health properties as olive oil, but this aspect was overlooked because, with the exception of Mediterranean countries, this product was seen in the past as a piece of decoration for pizzas and breads . Chapter 8, Table Olives as Sources of Bioactive Compounds, deals with table olive processing methods in relation to the levels of phenols and other bioactive constituents. Debittering techniques that are internationally applied are described, as well as local practices and popularity of certain preparations that give an image of the rich Mediterranean culture and tradition. Innovative proposals for debittering, targeting of oleuropein hydrolysis, packing under modified atmosphere, improvement of cultivars to obtain larger phenolic levels in fruits, fermentation with the use of probiotic bacteria from olive’s natural flora, and, generally, the combination of tradition and innovation indicate that this product can now be recognized as an important “functional” food. 

Specialty Oils and Fats in Food and Nutrition
Editor :G Talbot ,Woodhead Publishing Ltd,Cambridge,UK,2015
Print Book ISBN :9781782423768


Chapter1, Olive oil: Properties and processing for use in food
Authored by Dimitrios BOSKOU

Among the different vegetable oils, virgin olive oil has a unique place since it is obtained from a fruit only by mechanical or other physical methods. The use of solvents or processing aids with a chemical or biochemical action, as well as re-esterification are excluded by definition. Virgin olive oil, a priceless source of phenolic and other bioactive compounds has also a balanced ratio of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Although it is difficult to isolate individual dietary factors, cumulative evidence suggests that olive oil, used as the primary source of fat by Mediterranean populations, may play a key role in the observed cardiovascular and other health benefits. 
As the presence of phenolic molecules and other bioactive micro-components is fundamental for the oxidative stability, flavor and nutritional quality of virgin olive oil, agronomic factors and technological conditions of production are continuously investigated while improved innovative methods are proposed to minimize losses of important compounds due to processing and storage.
Virgin olive oil is relatively expensive but people are willing to pay more for qualities they value, such as oil from a particular region or variety. This high value of natural olive oil and usual fraudulent actions of adulteration and misbranding require the development of innovative analytical tools able to execute fast tests for quality and authenticity and implementation of legislated methods. Among the many state-of-the-art options (DNA- based methods, NIR spectroscopy application), single-cultivar classification using electronic tongues and advanced chemometrics, e.g. data mining methods for classification and prediction seem to be promising for future routine and real-time controls. The same is true for HPLC-MS profiling methods or other computed models to evaluate bitterness and pungency and check typicality of PDOs.

Marialisa Clodoveo -